Radio Waves

Radio waves are the product of the changing fields produced by an alternating current.Alternating current is produced by rotating a wire in a magnetic field or by rotating the magnetic field itself. If the wire is a closed closed circuit, then the fields in one part of the wire are generally cancelled out by those …

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1 by 60 rule

It can be used when Track Error is less then 20* Track Error= (Distance Off Track/Distance Flown)x 60 Question:  After flying for two hours at a ground speed of 240 kts an a/c pinpoints itself 12 NM off track. Find the Track Error? Answer:  Track Error = (12/240×2)x60 T.E.= 1.6*

Categories of aircraft


There are three major types of Directions, 1. Magnetic Direction : Its a direction in which freely suspended magnet unaffected by any Magnetic field points is called Magnetic North. Its not Geographical. 2.True Direction : Its a direction which is measured with respect to True North. 3.Compass Direction: Direction which compass Magnet points is called compass …

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Departure  is rhumb line distance in NM (Nautical mile) in the East West direction of a given latitude for a given difference in longitudes.   Dep= d.long (in mins) x Cos Lat. x 6o Note: It is max at Equator & Zero At Poles. Function Varies as Cos of Latitude.   Example :-   Question: …

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Rhumb Line

  In navigation, a rhumb line (or loxodrome) is a line crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, i.e. a path derived from a defined initial bearing. That is, upon taking an initial bearing, one proceeds along the same bearing, without changing the direction as measured relative to true or magnetic north.

Great Circle

  A great circle, also known as an orthodrome or Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere.

Marker Beacon

  A marker beacon is a particular type of VHF radio beacon used in aviation, usually in conjunction with an instrument landing system (ILS), to give pilots a means to determine position along an established route to a destination such as a runway. There are three types of marker beacons that may be installed as part of their most common application, an Instrument Landing System: …

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ILS Minimums

1. The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with all required ground and airborne systems components operative, are: (a) Category I. Decision Height (DH) 200 feet and Runway Visual Range (RVR) 2,400 feet (with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR 1,800 feet), or (with Autopilot or FD or HUD, RVR 1,800 feet); (b) Special Authorization Category I. DH 150 feet and Runway Visual Range …

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