General

1 by 60 rule

It can be used when Track Error is less then 20* Track Error= (Distance Off Track/Distance Flown)x 60 Question:  After flying for two hours at a ground speed of 240 kts an a/c pinpoints itself 12 NM off track. Find the Track Error? Answer:  Track Error = (12/240×2)x60 T.E.= 1.6*

Categories of aircraft
General

Direction

There are three major types of Directions, 1. Magnetic Direction : Its a direction in which freely suspended magnet unaffected by any Magnetic field points is called Magnetic North. Its not Geographical. 2.True Direction : Its a direction which is measured with respect to True North. 3.Compass Direction: Direction which compass Read more…

General

Departure

Departure  is rhumb line distance in NM (Nautical mile) in the East West direction of a given latitude for a given difference in longitudes.   Dep= d.long (in mins) x Cos Lat. x 6o Note: It is max at Equator & Zero At Poles. Function Varies as Cos of Latitude. Read more…

General

Rhumb Line

  In navigation, a rhumb line (or loxodrome) is a line crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, i.e. a path derived from a defined initial bearing. That is, upon taking an initial bearing, one proceeds along the same bearing, without changing the direction as measured relative to true or magnetic north.

General

Great Circle

  A great circle, also known as an orthodrome or Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere.

General

Marker Beacon

  A marker beacon is a particular type of VHF radio beacon used in aviation, usually in conjunction with an instrument landing system (ILS), to give pilots a means to determine position along an established route to a destination such as a runway. There are three types of marker beacons that may be installed as part of their most common Read more…

General

ILS Minimums

1. The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with all required ground and airborne systems components operative, are: (a) Category I. Decision Height (DH) 200 feet and Runway Visual Range (RVR) 2,400 feet (with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR 1,800 feet), or (with Autopilot or FD or HUD, RVR 1,800 feet); (b) Special Authorization Category I. DH 150 Read more…

General

VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)

  1. VORs operate within the 108.0 to 117.95 MHz frequency band and have a power output necessary to provide coverage within their assigned   operational service volume. They are subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment. 2. Most VORs are equipped for voice Read more…

General

Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB)

1. A low or medium frequency radio beacon transmits nondirectional signals whereby the pilot of an aircraft properly equipped can determine bearings and “home” on the station. These facilities normally operate in a frequency band of 190 to 535 kilohertz (kHz), according to ICAO Annex 10 the frequency range for NDBs Read more…