General

Marker Beacon

  A marker beacon is a particular type of VHF radio beacon used in aviation, usually in conjunction with an instrument landing system (ILS), to give pilots a means to determine position along an established route to a destination such as a runway. There are three types of marker beacons that may be installed as part of their most common Read more…

General

ILS Minimums

1. The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with all required ground and airborne systems components operative, are: (a) Category I. Decision Height (DH) 200 feet and Runway Visual Range (RVR) 2,400 feet (with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR 1,800 feet), or (with Autopilot or FD or HUD, RVR 1,800 feet); (b) Special Authorization Category I. DH 150 Read more…

General

VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)

  1. VORs operate within the 108.0 to 117.95 MHz frequency band and have a power output necessary to provide coverage within their assigned   operational service volume. They are subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment. 2. Most VORs are equipped for voice Read more…

General

Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB)

1. A low or medium frequency radio beacon transmits nondirectional signals whereby the pilot of an aircraft properly equipped can determine bearings and “home” on the station. These facilities normally operate in a frequency band of 190 to 535 kilohertz (kHz), according to ICAO Annex 10 the frequency range for NDBs Read more…