1. A low or medium frequency radio beacon transmits nondirectional signals whereby the pilot of an aircraft properly equipped can determine bearings and “home” on the station. These facilities normally operate in a frequency band of 190 to 535 kilohertz (kHz), according to ICAO Annex 10 the frequency range for NDBs is between 190 and 1750 kHz, and transmit a continuous carrier with either 400 or 1020 hertz (Hz) modulation. All radio beacons except the compass locators transmit a continuous three-letter identification in code except during voice transmissions.
2. When a radio beacon is used in conjunction with the Instrument Landing System markers, it is called a Compass Locator.
3. Voice transmissions are made on radio beacons unless the letter “W” (without voice) is included in the class designator (HW).
4. Radio beacons are subject to disturbances that may result in erroneous bearing information. Such disturbances result from such factors as lightning, precipitation static, etc. At night, radio beacons are vulnerable to interference from distant stations. Nearly all disturbances which affect the Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) bearing also affect the facility’s identification. Noisy identification usually occurs when the ADF needle is erratic. Voice, music or erroneous identification may be heard when a steady false bearing is being displayed. Since ADF receivers do not have a “flag” to warn the pilot when erroneous bearing information is being displayed, the pilot should continuously monitor the NDB’s identification.